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 Biology study realm

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Evil-mashimaro

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Date d'inscription : 15/09/2007
Age : 24

MessageSujet: Biology study realm    Sam 27 Aoû 2011 - 22:42

Since no one did a blog for bio (guess that doesn't interest anyone of us), here's a study realm for bio! 1
Be sure to come here discuss with us every Sunday!

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MessageSujet: Re: Biology study realm    Dim 28 Aoû 2011 - 10:58

What do you want to discuss about?
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MessageSujet: Re: Biology study realm    Dim 28 Aoû 2011 - 11:36

This is what you have to remember by heart:




etc
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Evil-mashimaro

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MessageSujet: Re: Biology study realm    Dim 28 Aoû 2011 - 22:03

-_-lll Let's do a bio glossary.

Everyone add a word to the glossary each time you reply. You have to put the word in alphabetical order. I begin:

Organization of life
Atom (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen -> more than 96% of organism mass) ---(ordered into)--> complex molecules (protein, lipids, carbohydrates & nucleic acid) ---> cellular organelles (e.g.: nucleus) ---> cell (smallest biological unit) ---> tissues (e.g.: nervous tissue) ---> organs (e.g.: brain) ---> organ systems (e.g.: brain & spinal card) ---> complex organism (e.g.: human) ---> population (group of same species) -- -> community (group of different species interacting with each other) ---> ecosystem (all living and non-living component interacting together)

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MessageSujet: Re: Biology study realm    Dim 28 Aoû 2011 - 22:07

Organization of life
Atom (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen -> more than 96% of organism mass) ---(ordered into)--> complex molecules (protein, lipids, carbohydrates & nucleic acid) ---> cellular organelles (e.g.: nucleus) ---> cell (smallest biological unit) ---> tissues (e.g.: nervous tissue) ---> organs (e.g.: brain) ---> organ systems (e.g.: brain & spinal card) ---> complex organism (e.g.: human) ---> population (group of same species) -- -> community (group of different species interacting with each other) ---> ecosystem (all living and non-living component interacting together)

Properties of life (7)
Order- All characteristics are a result of an organisms ordered structure
Reproduction- Organisms will reproduce their own kind; life comes from life
Growth & Development- DNA directs the pattern of growth and development, producing an organism that is characteristic of its species
Energy Utilization- Organisms take in energy though various methods and make it usable
Response to the Environment- Organisms will respond to stimuli
Homeostasis- An organisms internal environment is regulated by mechanisms to cope with an imbalance
Evolutionary Adaption- Organisms will evolve due to changes in environment and interaction with other organisms

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MessageSujet: Re: Biology study realm    Dim 28 Aoû 2011 - 22:11

Energy flow
Sunlight --> plant (photosynthesis: giving sugar & heat) --> animal (cellular respiration: giving ATP & heat)

Organization of life
Atom (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen -> more than 96% of organism mass) ---(ordered into)--> complex molecules (protein, lipids, carbohydrates & nucleic acid) ---> cellular organelles (e.g.: nucleus) ---> cell (smallest biological unit) ---> tissues (e.g.: nervous tissue) ---> organs (e.g.: brain) ---> organ systems (e.g.: brain & spinal card) ---> complex organism (e.g.: human) ---> population (group of same species) -- -> community (group of different species interacting with each other) ---> ecosystem (all living and non-living component interacting together)

Properties of life (7)
Order- All characteristics are a result of an organisms ordered structure
Reproduction- Organisms will reproduce their own kind; life comes from life
Growth & Development- DNA directs the pattern of growth and development, producing an organism that is characteristic of its species
Energy Utilization- Organisms take in energy though various methods and make it usable
Response to the Environment- Organisms will respond to stimuli
Homeostasis- An organisms internal environment is regulated by mechanisms to cope with an imbalance
Evolutionary Adaption- Organisms will evolve due to changes in environment and interaction with other organisms

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MessageSujet: Re: Biology study realm    Dim 28 Aoû 2011 - 22:23

It's going to be long very quickly.

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
ATP transports chemical energy within animal cells for metabolism. The hydrolysis of ATP releases energy which transfer to kinetic energy. It is a renewable resource.
Picture: http://kentsimmons.uwinnipeg.ca/cm1504/Image147.gif

Energy flow
Sunlight --> plant (photosynthesis: giving sugar & heat) --> animal (cellular respiration: giving ATP & heat)

Organization of life
Atom (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen -> more than 96% of organism mass) ---(ordered into)--> complex molecules (protein, lipids, carbohydrates & nucleic acid) ---> cellular organelles (e.g.: nucleus) ---> cell (smallest biological unit) ---> tissues (e.g.: nervous tissue) ---> organs (e.g.: brain) ---> organ systems (e.g.: brain & spinal card) ---> complex organism (e.g.: human) ---> population (group of same species) -- -> community (group of different species interacting with each other) ---> ecosystem (all living and non-living component interacting together)

Properties of life (7)
Order- All characteristics are a result of an organisms ordered structure
Reproduction- Organisms will reproduce their own kind; life comes from life
Growth & Development- DNA directs the pattern of growth and development, producing an organism that is characteristic of its species
Energy Utilization- Organisms take in energy though various methods and make it usable
Response to the Environment- Organisms will respond to stimuli
Homeostasis- An organisms internal environment is regulated by mechanisms to cope with an imbalance
Evolutionary Adaption- Organisms will evolve due to changes in environment and interaction with other organisms
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Date d'inscription : 13/05/2008

MessageSujet: Re: Biology study realm    Dim 28 Aoû 2011 - 22:31

What? that's insane!

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MessageSujet: Re: Biology study realm    Dim 28 Aoû 2011 - 23:11

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
ATP transports chemical energy within animal cells for metabolism. The hydrolysis of ATP releases energy which transfer to kinetic energy. It is a renewable resource.
Picture: http://kentsimmons.uwinnipeg.ca/cm1504/Image147.gif

Autotroph
Living that do not consume other organism, make their own organic molecules. (e.g.: plants) OPPOSITE: HETEROTROPH

Energy flow
Sunlight --> plant (photosynthesis: giving sugar & heat) --> animal (cellular respiration: giving ATP & heat)

Heterotroph
Consume other organism, cannot make their own food. (e.g.: animal) OPPOSITE: AUTOTROPH

Organization of life
Atom (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen -> more than 96% of organism mass) ---(ordered into)--> complex molecules (protein, lipids, carbohydrates & nucleic acid) ---> cellular organelles (e.g.: nucleus) ---> cell (smallest biological unit) ---> tissues (e.g.: nervous tissue) ---> organs (e.g.: brain) ---> organ systems (e.g.: brain & spinal card) ---> complex organism (e.g.: human) ---> population (group of same species) -- -> community (group of different species interacting with each other) ---> ecosystem (all living and non-living component interacting together)

Properties of life (7)
Order- All characteristics are a result of an organisms ordered structure
Reproduction- Organisms will reproduce their own kind; life comes from life
Growth & Development- DNA directs the pattern of growth and development, producing an organism that is characteristic of its species
Energy Utilization- Organisms take in energy though various methods and make it usable
Response to the Environment- Organisms will respond to stimuli
Homeostasis- An organisms internal environment is regulated by mechanisms to cope with an imbalance
Evolutionary Adaption- Organisms will evolve due to changes in environment and interaction with other organisms

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Date d'inscription : 15/09/2007
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MessageSujet: Re: Biology study realm    Lun 5 Sep 2011 - 11:03

What's the point of this?
Can't we just study this properly? 30

Answer this question: Why is water important to life?
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MessageSujet: Re: Biology study realm    Lun 5 Sep 2011 - 11:51

Water is important because it has the polar property to dissolve, to transport molecules and themselves in an organism, and to stabilize temperature.

Polarity: cause by oxygen that are more electronegative than hydrogen. Therefore, oxygen is slightly negative and hydrogen slightly positive. This is what is called Hydrogen bond (H-bond).
--> Consequence: strong cohesion (attract each other) and adhesion (attract others) property.
--> Function: water can circulate upward against gravity --> capillary action (e.g.: in plants)

Water can also stabilize air temperature: due to H-bond
Because they are cohesive, we need a lot of energy to separate them apart: thus they can absorb a lot of energy before their temperature can raise (that's why their heat capacity is high).
In other words, H-bond must absorb energy to be broken. Energy is released when H-bond is formed.
Therefore, they can absorb heat from warm air and release heat to cooler air.
--> Consequence: a large body of water can act like a heat sink
--> Function: stabilize air temperature

Water can also dissolve hydrophilic molecules: due to H-bond.
Hydrophilic molecules are either ionic or polar compounds that can be easily attracted my the positive/negative part of the water molecule.
--> Consequence: Hydrophilic can be transported by water. Hydrophobic molecules sticks together and can form barriers to prevent hydrophilic molecules from entering (e.g.: cell membrane is hydrophobic on one side, these sides stick together and for the barrier between cells.
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MessageSujet: Re: Biology study realm    Lun 5 Sep 2011 - 12:48

Water can hydrolyze/dehydrolyze macromolecules: due to H-bond properties.

Also we can add that water (due to H-bond) has high surface tension.
--> allow some insects to "walk" on the water.
Water can also act as a base or an acid ---> it can ionize into H+ or OH- to naturalize an acid or a base.

Question 2: What are macromolecules?
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MessageSujet: Re: Biology study realm    Lun 5 Sep 2011 - 19:12

Macromolecules are larde molecules that are formed by dehydrolysis and broken by hydrolysis.

4 types: Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic Acid

Carbohydrates: sugar. polymers
-Monosaccharides: monomers, sugar, serve as fuel

CHO --> carbonyl group
OH --> hydroxyl group (group OH)

-Disaccharide: 2 monosaccharides formed by condensation (dehydrolysis).


-Polysaccharides: hundred to thousands; for storage and structure support.

Starch: found in plants, alpha-glucose; form a helix; most animal have digestive enzyme to hydrolyse starch
Glycogen: found in animals; large, highly branched; stored in human liver and muscle.
Cellulose: found in plants; alpha & beta-glucose alternating; reinforce plant cell wall, cannot be digested by animal -> lack of enzyme that can break down beta-glucose.

Chitin: found in the shells on insect and crustaceans; from with amino sugar (monomer)

Lipids: not polymers, hydrophobic,
3 types:

-Fat: storage (energy, heat) - twice as much energy than polysaccharides, formed with dehydrolysis; protect internal organ, prevent heat loss (whales, seals)
--Glycerol: 3 carbon alcohol

--fatty acid: long hydrocarbon chain

---saturated: solid at room temperature; animal fat (e.g.: butter)
---unsaturated: lquid at room temperature; plant fat (e.g. vegetable oil)
3 fatty acids are linked to a glycerol


--Phospholipids: major component of cell membrane; can form micelles -> form barrier between intracellular and extracellular water (due to its hydrophilic and hydrophobic property)


--Steroid: cholesterol (part of cell membrane), hormone


-Protein: molecular tool for the cell
Function: structural support, collage in animal constructive tissue
--Transport: hemoglobin: transport oxygen, coarbon oxide
--Hormonal: insulin
--Receptor: detect chemical signal released by other cells
--Movement: actin and myosin
--Defensive: antibodies
--Enzymatic: accelerate chemical reaction

Proteins are constructed by 20 amino acids --> polymers are called polypeptides --> condensation reaction --> peptide bond (covalent)


-Nucleic acid: storage, transmit genetic information (DNA, RNA, they are all proteins)
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MessageSujet: Re: Biology study realm    Mer 7 Déc 2011 - 19:41


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